Ha-young Choi was an NK News correspondent based in Seoul. For 50 years, successive governments in Seoul silenced the Korean people’s memories of systematic murder, rape and torture. Jeju was no exception, except that the fight turned exceptionally bloody. On March 1, 1947, police fired on demonstrators commemorating the 28th year after the March 1st independence movement opposing Japanese, North Korea’s threatening message to the US is a covert nudge for negotiations, Expert roundup: What North Korea’s Eighth Party Congress says about the future, North Korea calls the US its ‘biggest enemy’ and vows to keep developing nukes. We instead recommend using Chrome, Edge, Firefox or Safari. In one of its first official acts, the South Korean national assembly passed the National Traitors Act in 1948, which among other measures, outlawed the South Korean Labor Party.[6]. For decades afterwards the South Korean military dictatorship silenced any mention of the 3.4 killings on Jeju Island. To me, Jeju used to be a beautiful island where everybody wanted to visit for their either romantic or exciting vacation. In late fall of 1948, the rebels began openly siding with Kim Il Sung by flying North Korean flags.[3]. Reporters from Stars and Stripes, published by the U.S. Army provided vivid and uncensored accounts of the South Korean Army’s brutal suppression of the rebellion, the local popular support of the rebels, as well as the rebels' retaliation against government forces. Many residents of Jeju escaped to Japan, some establishing a Jeju town in Osaka. The immensely biodiverse Jeju Island is a most inappropriate location for a deep-water port to host highly armed U.S. and Korean Navy war ships. On August 30, 1950, according to a written order by a senior intelligence officer in the South Korean Navy, the Jeju police were instructed to "execute all those in groups C and D by firin… The Americans documented the massacre, but never intervened. Immediately after North Korea invaded the South across the 38th Parallel on June 25, 1950, the South Korean military ordered "preemptive apprehension" of suspected leftists nationwide. In the post-WWII years, the three major nations of the Far East—China, Korea and Japan—all struggled with the rise of Communism; in China, the Maoists won and established a Communist government, in Japan the communist Red Guards were suppressed, in Korea a massive war was fought and the country was divided. The Outbreak of the Jeju 4.3 Uprising and the Response of the USAMGIK At dawn of April 3, 1948, beacons lit on Mt. Of course, Jeju Islandis still unquestionably beautiful, but when I heard that most of the famous tourist attraction sites were once the graveyards of many souls, I was shocked by the forgotten history, the Jeju April 3 Incident. The arrest of 2,500 party cadres on Jeju and the killing of at least three of them broke up the planned demonstrations. American and Soviet troops arrived to accept the Japanese surrender in southern and northern parts of the Korean Peninsula, respectively. Fearing that the elections would further reinforce division, guerrilla fighters of the Workers' Party of South Korea (WPSK) reacted violently, attacking local police and rightist youth groups stationed on Jeju Island. Now a group of scholars and clergy from the island are endeavoring to raise awareness of the U.S. government and military's role in the incident. Seeking a speedy resolution to the insurrection, the South Korean government sent 3,000 soldiers of the South Korean 11th Constabulary Regiment to reinforce local police, but on April 29, several hundred soldiers mutinied, handing over large small-arms caches to the rebels. They also attacked political opponents and their families, and issued an appeal urging the local population to rise up and liberate their country from the “American cannibals and their running dogs.”. But after civilian rule was reinstated later in the 1990s, the government made several cases of apologies for the suppression, and efforts are being made to re-assess the scope of the incident and compensate the survivors. Ko, an “80-year-old grandmother,” is a witness and survivor of one of the most brutal massacres in South Korean history. Thousands were detained on Jeju, then sorted into four groups, labeled A, B, C, and D, based on the security risks each was perceived to pose. By October 1948, the rebel army consisted of approximately 4,000 combatants, and although most were poorly armed they scored several minor victories over the Army. By spring of 1949, however, four Korean army battalions arrived and joined the local constabulary, police forces and Youth Association partisans. Thousands were detained on Jeju, then sorted into four groups, labeled A, B, C, and D, based on the security risks each was perceived to pose. Follow her on twitter @Hy_Choi0826, Specialist news and analysis, research tools, and unique data sets. You will receive a link to create a new password via email. “The April 3rd Uprising and Massacre” was a tragic incident that happened between 1 March 1947 and 21 September 1954 on Jeju Island. The National Committee for the Truth About the Jeju April 3 Incident, Art, Music, Literature, Sports and leisure. The South Korean military and police launched a scorched earth operation to break down the communists on Cheju Island. eval(ez_write_tag([[336,280],'newworldencyclopedia_org-medrectangle-4','ezslot_2',162,'0','0'])); Jeju's isolation had always meant the Seoul government was a distant influence compared to other areas of Korea. T he volcanic Jeju Island is now a popular honeymoon destination in South Korea, but has a darker history that has only relatively recently begun to be openly discussed: a little over seventy years ago it was the scene of a massacre. Suppression of the rebellion by the South Korean army was brutal, resulting in tens of thousands of deaths, destroying many villages on the island, and sparking rebellions on the Korean mainland. Members distributed leaflets and demonstrated. Hallasan and the government forces held the coastal towns. Former Korean President Roh Moo Kyum designated Jeju as “Jeju Island of Global Peace” when he formally apologized for the April 1948 massacre. Credit is due under the terms of this license that can reference both the New World Encyclopedia contributors and the selfless volunteer contributors of the Wikimedia Foundation. In Jeju, it is referred to as the "4.3 Uprising" or "4.3 Massacre" (4.3 referring to April 3); between 30,000 and 60,000 people were killed in fighting between factions. Truth-Finding Efforts and Recommendations. In hopes that it would lead to a wider Korean protest, islanders cut phone cables, destroyed railroads, and attacked police stations. Join the influential community of members who rely on NK News original news and in-depth reporting. “The April 3 rd Uprising and Massacre” is a tragic series of incidents that happened between 1 March 1947 and 21 September 1954 on Jeju Island. Tuesday April 3, 2018 marked the 70th anniversary of the April 3 Jeju Uprising and Massacre. The event had been largely ignored by the government. Outraged, the people of Jeju attacked 12 police stations. The Seoul government also sent several hundred Northwest Youth Association members, a group of anti-communist North Korean refugees as part of a paramilitary force. The region eventually coalesced into free and Communist blocs in the process of the Cold War, but beforehand the two ideologies were not so clearly separated and fierce ideological, sometimes physical, fighting took place in cities, villages, and countryside. The government wanted what amounted to a complete surrender, and the rebels demanded disarmament of the local police, dismissal of all governing officials on the island, prohibition of paramilitary groups on the island and reunification of the Korean peninsula. in accordance with New World Encyclopedia standards. The March 1 Shooting Incident. In the fighting up to 100 policemen and civilians were killed. On August 30, 1950, according to a written order by a senior intelligence officer in the South Korean Navy, the Jeju police were instructed to "execute all those in groups C and D by firing squad no later than September 6."[4]. In one of its first official acts, the South Korean National Assembly passed the National Traitors Act in 1948, which among other measures, outlawed the Workers Party of South Korea. The guerrillas created base camps on Mt. In March of 1950, North Korea sent thousands of armed insurgents to resuscitate the guerrilla fighting on Jeju, but by this time the South Korean army had become particularly adept at counterinsurgency and quashed the new uprising in only a few weeks. Jeju is now Jeju Special Self-Governing Province. It was a chaotic period right after the independence from Japan and the Korean Peninsula was entering into the Cold War era. The Jeju Uprising or Jeju Massacre (old spelling, "Cheju") refers to the rebellion and subsequent heavy government suppression on Jeju Island, South Korea, beginning April 3, 1948. ... 80, who lived through a massacre in the island's northern Bukchon Village. Halla and the nearby volcanic cones, heralding the start of an armed rebellion. The UN Assembly adopted a new resolution calling for elections in areas accessible to the UN Commission, which at that time included only members of the United States Army Military Government in Korea, also known as USMAGIK. “The Jeju Island massacre of April 3, 1948, is the ‘red room,’ or the unspeakable history of our past. Immediately after North Koreainvaded the South across the 38th Parallel on June 25, 1950, the South Korean military ordered "preemptive apprehension" of suspected leftists nationwide. [2] Many of the Jeju people were more inspired by their perception of a future promoted by Kim Il Sung in North Korea than by the capitalist version taking shape in South Korea, and in Japan. In addition, Microsoft cyber-security chief Chris Jackson has been urging users to stop using the browser since February 2019. Prevailing sentiment on Jeju was that the local government and police forces were made up mostly of those who had readily collaborated with the Japanese occupation, and there was unrest at heavy taxation of agricultural and fishing commodities reminiscent of the Joseon Dynasty. Wehrfritz, George, B.J. I visited my hometown of JeJu Island, South Korea in 2014 to conduct research for The MAGO Project, as well as work on a documentary film about the 1948 Jeju 4.3 (April 3rd) Massacre, a joint action by the South Korean and United States militaries in which approximately 30,000 villagers across the … In 1992, South Korean President Roh Tae Woo's government sealed up a cave on Mount Halla, where the remains of massacre victims had been discovered. American and Soviet armies stayed separated at the 38th Parallel by a prearranged agreement between United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt and Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin. 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