This base, After Guilford's initial model, researchers would begin to categorize and. Another neural network identified as important for creativity is the salience network, which includes the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and the anterior insula (Abraham, Rutter, Bantin, & Hermann, 2018; Beaty et al., 2015; Heinonen et al., 2016). This focus on spontaneous illumination is most obviously present in the rich literature on creative insight, which reveals the ways in which new and useful ideas arise autonomously in the mind (though there is discussion of the role of controlled and volitional thought in insight; see Kounios & Beeman, 2014; Chein & Weisberg, 2014). Some theorists explain creativity as intrinsic creative motivations, which individuals create a project for the sake of creating (Wibell, 2011). The creator will then know when to move on to pursue other ideas (as in selling high, when one divests oneself of stocks). As the evidence surrounding the importance of interaction between associative and executive processing in creative thought continues to emerge, at both the behavioral and neural levels, many have articulated a need for dual-process theoretical frameworks that can more fully account for this interplay. Before I am able to explain several of the leading theories of creativity, one must understand a confusing intricacy surrounding this topic of study. Creativity and Observation A lot of the time, creativity can be spurred by something in the environment, triggering connections with new ideas. For example, Allen and Thomas (2011) revisited modern conceptions of Wallas's famous stages of creativity and argued that associative and executive processes are active throughout all stages, with different stages differentially associated with each type of thinking process. Amabile attributes special relevance to intrinsic motivation because this component can make the difference between what one can do (determined by domain relevant skills and creativity-relevant skills) and what one will in fact do. Thus in terms of what is happening inside a creative thinker's head, divergent thinking skill may actually be many unrelated, domain specific cognitive skills; but in terms of how psychologists can understand these many diverse skills (viewing divergent thinking from the outside, as it were), divergent thinking is a coherent class of skills that bear a strong family resemblance. Similarly, domain specificity of creativity means that creativity testing as currently practiced is necessarily inadequate and of limited validity. In particular, it is a decision to buy low and sell high in the world of ideas. Moving on from Guilford's model of cognitive ability, Kerrie Unsworth proposed that there was more than just raw intelligence that influenced the creative process. Creativity training, on the other hand, can accommodate domain specificity of creativity rather easily. It is quite possible that both domain specificity and generality are true, each in part and in its own way. This implies that in order to fully understand creativity, one has to consider the interplay between the person and the environment. To give a sense of the significance of this issue in the world of creativity research and theory, the Creativity Research Journal has published just one invited debate (in the form of a pair of Point-Counterpoint articles) in its history. One way of organizing creativity research is the "Four P" model, which distinguishes the creative person, process, product, and press (i.e., environment) (Rhodes, 1961). Because creativity is as dynamic and diverse as previously stated, the need for multiple theories to be correct to fit any given context arises. Although these efforts had already been initiated (e.g., Baldridge & Burnham, 1975), the social–psychological approach brought a new impetus to this research agenda. Divergent thinking as a general class of thinking skills is still a useful construct, however, both (a) because it makes this wide range of skills more coherent and easy to conceptualize and (b) because it makes it simpler to postulate and identify the appropriate domain-specific divergent thinking skills that will be important within any given domain or microdomain. Match. Creativity and innovation found in the animal kingdom appear to follow similar rules, constraints, and models to those in humans. Maslow’s theory of creativeness is a creative achievement. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, Encyclopedia of Creativity (Second Edition), Implications of Domain Specificity for Creativity Theory*, Michael A. Creativity and American Culture Exam 1 Cards. In order to contextualize the importance of climate on organizational creativity and innovation it is useful to look at how this literature evolved. According to the triangular theory, creative individuals defy the crowd (other people and their conscious beliefs), themselves (the individual), and/or the Zeitgeist (the shared and often unconscious worldview of their field). Intellectual abilities are generally acknowledged to be necessary but not sufficient for creativity. The Investment Theory of Creativity by Sternberg, creativity has six sources that require confluence: Intelligence, Knowledge, Style of thinking, Personality, Motivation, and Learning environmental contexts. In later work, Beaty, Benedek, Kaufman, and Silvia (2015) also employed temporal connectivity analysis to show interactions within these regions, whereas participants generated novel ideas, demonstrating that creative thought relies on “cooperation between brain networks linked to cognitive control and spontaneous thought, which may reflect focused internal attention and the top-down control of spontaneous cognition during creative idea production” (p. 1). Our vision was for a dialog between those who study creativity in animals and those who study the same topic in humans. In J.P. Guilford's now famous 1950 APA Address, he lamented the “appalling neglect” of the concept of creativity. West and colleagues’ climate model is, in our awareness, the only model focusing on team level climate (Anderson & West, 1998; West, 1990; West & Anderson, 1996). The first section presents a discussion of how the theories will be classified and compared, highlighting key challenges, considerations, and limitations. The theories are entitled creativity as a function of behavior, of personality, and of cognitive processes, respectively. This constitutes a deviation from a majority of cognitive psychological research, though this focus is unsurprising given that creativity has been defined by the content of generated thought and the relatively clear demarcation between the functional purpose of generation and evaluation. Moving from the implications of domain specificity for creativity theory to its implications for creativity testing, a domain specific understanding of creativity provides a very direct challenge to existing notions of how to test creativity. This is to say that just as Guilford offered cognitive ability as a component of creativity, context is another factor that shapes and mold types of creativity. One such theory is Sternberg and Lubart's ‘investment’ theory of creativity, in which the key to being creative is to buy low and sell high in the world of ideas. They explain, in detail, the considerable deviation in conceptualizations mentioned above—that dual-process theories of cognition predominantly focus on distinctions of autonomy and control in dividing types of processing, whereas creativity researchers tend to focus on the difference between generative and evaluative processes, and divergent and convergent thinking. Creativity theory is a set of models and concepts for explaining creativity, the act of creating something non-obvious that is unusually valuable. -c. Expressional fluency, or the ability to organize words into larger units, such as phrases, sentences, and paragraphs. He stated that there were five types of operations, four types of content, and six types of products adding to a total of one hundred and twenty different types of possible metal tasks (he would later expand this number to one hundred and eighty different mental tasks, but for now let's focus on the original one hundred and twenty.) Based on qualitative and quantitative work, the authors identified the following eight dimensions: Focusing on a theory of psychological processes, Ekval and colleagues (Ekvall, 1996; Ekvall & Ryhammar, 1999; Ekvall & Tangebergandersson, 1986; Isaksen, Lauer, Ekvall, & Britz, 2000) proposed a 9 dimensional model integrating: We note that other models more strongly embedded in organizational management theory have also been developed (e.g., Abbey & Dickson, 1983; Tesluk, Farr, &. In other words, intrinsic motivation determines the extent to which domain relevant skills and creativity-relevant skills will be fully and appropriately applied towards successful creative performance. (2014) found that greater functional connectivity between the prefrontal cortex (which is linked to executive processing) and the default network (which is linked to associative processing) was associated with higher scores on tests of divergent thinking. This article presents a triangular theory of creativity. West’s team climate model (1990) and Amabile and colleagues’ work environment model (1996) are arguably the most widely validated models of climate for creativity and innovation. For example, in Slepian and Ambady (2012), participants were asked to terminate their attempt if they could not produce a solution to a Remote Associates Test (RAT; REF) problem within 5 seconds, and this was done to “ensure that answers were discovered by connecting remotely associated concepts rather than by brute-force searching (see Dorfman, Shames, & Kihlstrom, 1996; Slepian, Weisbuch, Rutchick, Newman, & Ambady, 2010)” (p. 4). Terms in this set (15) Creativity is: a process by which a symbolic domain of culture is changed. > > Creativity is a different angle to see the nature/universe. Similar emphasis on generation versus evaluation is found in other prominent theories of creativity. -a. Spontaneous flexibility, or the ability to demonstrate flexibility. People who are high in synthetic ability but low in analytical ability may need someone else to evaluate and judge their work for them. In recent years, there has been an emphasis on creativity theories that incorporate factors that are interrelated. Although several definitions of creativity can be found in the recent organizational creativity literature, they are consensual in stressing that creativity implies novelty and usefulness (Amabile, 1988; George & Zhou, 2002; Pamela Tierney & Farmer, 2002). There has not been a synthesized collection and exchange of ideas between the two communities until now, however, despite the clear benefits to understanding the benefits of creativity in both an evolutionary and cognitive sense. Some studies have found that people who tended to produce more original responses also were better at rating their most original responses to a divergent-thinking task. Figure 2. She explains that innovation is used in regards to the implementation of ideas whereas creativity describes only the generation of ideas. In this work, Mednick argued that creativity could be predicted from associative hierarchies. Yet studies of acting, dancing, and other performance-based arts have continued to grow, and it is my delight to introduce Creativity and the Performing Artist: Behind the Mask as the latest volume to the Explorations in Creativity Research series from Academic Press. Klein, 1997). We will refer back to this model later in this chapter when discussing organizational climate features. The creative individual uses analytic ability to work out the implications of a creative idea and to test it. Created by. Yet, before discussing the role of context, we should start by clarifying what we mean by creativity and innovation. Practical ability is the ability to translate theory into practice and abstract ideas into practical accomplishments. Nathaniel Barr, ... Paul Seli, in Creativity and the Wandering Mind, 2020. Most creativity training programs already use a wide variety of tasks, spread across various content domains, in the exercises they use to improve divergent thinking and other creative thinking skills. Looking at resting-state connectivity, Beaty et al. Based on different theoretical frameworks, several models of climate have been developed identifying a number of dimensions that can influence creativity and innovation (cf. PLAY. Even if we keep strictly within the specific task domain of creative problem-solving, however, several findings anomalous to the positive mood-enhance-creativity theory have been reported. For instance, the “person approach”, which represented one of the dominant schools of thought in the psychological study of creativity, conceptualized creativity as the constellation of personality and intellectual traits shown by individuals who, when given sufficient autonomy, spent significant amounts of time engaged in the creative process (Findlay & Lumsden, 1988). 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